Pivotal Response Training (PRT):
Pivotal response training is a set of techniques used in various forms of therapy such as ABA. PRT aims to motivate the child through giving choices, varying tasks and promoting success through the use of reinforcement of attempts and pairing previously learned activities with new activities. The child is encouraged to be independent via self-monitoring and taking responsibility as well as initiating learning opportunities through enquiry. Generalisation of taught skills is a further priority in PRT.
Behaviour Intervention Programs/Positive Behaviour Support (PBS):
Behaviour intervention programs are put into place in an attempt to reduce undesired behaviours and to replace them with more appropriate alternatives. Often children with developmental delay engage in undesired or inappropriate behaviours as they are unable to communicate their needs. It is important that (following the ruling out of any medical reasons for the behaviour) the function or the reason that the child is engaging in the behaviour is identified and appropriate alternative is taught as a part of the intervention process.
An individual and comprehensive intervention plan is developed consisting of a functional analysis of the behaviour including observations and interviews, removal of antecedents for the behaviour (where appropriate) and replacing the behaviour with an appropriate alternative.
Parents/carers and educational staff take on the responsibility of continuing with the intervention plan outside of the clinical setting.
Play therapy is a type of counselling that allows children to transcend traditional language barriers to be able to communicate through toys and actions. It is most effective with children aged 2-10 years old. Play is the natural language of children and toys can be their words. Through the toys, art materials and other objects in the playroom, children can express their thoughts and feelings, explore relationships and share about their experiences. The play therapist may join in play direction or request of the child or direct play to address specific issues.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
CBT is one of the most established and researched psychological therapies for emotional, psychological and psychiatric dysfunction. The application of CBT varies according to the focus of the therapy, but is essentially a collaborative and individualized program that helps individuals to identify unhelpful thoughts and behaviours and learn or relearn healthier skills and habits. A strength of CBT is that it helps people overcome current symptoms while teaching new skills and strategies that can be applied to future problems.
Psycho-educational therapy aims to empower the client and family through educating them on their condition. It is an important component of all psychotherapy which provides information and support in the initial stages of therapy as well as throughout the treatment. It aims to reduce the stress of the client and family by helping them understand the symptoms of the condition and what to possibly expect in the future.